Author: Taylor Swift

The Higher Cost of Cookouts – Happy, Healthy Independence Day 2022 – HealthPopuli.com

The Higher Cost of Cookouts – Happy, Healthy Independence Day 2022 – HealthPopuli.com

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On this July 4th holiday, Americans aren’t feeling quite so financially independent on Independence Day 2022. The cost of a cookout for your family and friend group of 10 rose over $10 this year, 17% higher than in 2021, based on the American Farm Bureau Federation’s annual assessment of BBQing Economics on the Fourth of July.

 

 

 

 

 

 

This estimate is based on a market-basket menu that includes cheeseburgers, pork chops, chicken breasts, homemade potato salad, strawberries and ice cream.

Key factors driving up the cost of an All-American cookout include supply chain disruptions (a hangover from the COVID-19 pandemic and consumer demand outstripping supply in many categories, as well as inflation and the War in Ukraine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

To understand the details of 2022 BBQ inflation by mains and sides, the second chart details the per-ingredient cost inflation: retail prices rose,

  • 36% for 2 pounds of ground beef, now $11.12
  • 33% up for 2 pounds of boneless, skinless chicken breasts, $8.99
  • 31% rise for 3 pounds of center cut pork chops, $15.26
  • 22% up for 2.5 quarts of fresh squeezed lemonade, now $4.43
  • 19% rise for 2.5 pounds of homemade potato salad, $3.27
  • 16% higher for an 8-pack of hamburger buns, $1.93
  • Up 10% for a half-gallon of vanilla ice cream, $5.16
  • 7% rise for a 13-ounce bag of chocolate chip cookies, $4.31.

Some good news with deflation for a few key foodstuffs: Strawberry prices are down by 16%, with 2 pints priced at $4.44, sliced cheese for those burgers down 13% (now $3.53 in this study), and a 16-ounce bag of potato chips down 4% to $4.71.

AFBF Chief Economist Roger Cryan commented, “Despite higher food prices, the supply chain disruptions and inflation have made farm supplies more expensive,” costs of which are passed on from farmer and food producer to consumer.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Health Populi’s Hot Points:  While grilling will be the most prevalent activity for Independence Day, 64% of Americans plan to spend less than $100 on the day, a study from Numerator found.

The economic poll among U.S. consumers by CBS News/YouGov conducted June 22-24 2022 found that most Americans are concerned about their ability to afford summer spending for daily household goods, vacations and travel, and big ticket items.

Three in four people in the U.S. are also concerned they’ll be able to save money in the current economic environment.

Trying to help out consumers in managing cookout costs, the bank Wells Fargo offered their own view on July 4th cookout economics.

One tasty recommendation that would go over well in Chez S-Kahn will be to switch out burgers-and-pork for shrimp tacos, because shrimp prices are at their five-year average cost. “Shrimp is a relative bargain compared to other proteins, specific to price increases,” Wells calculated. “The current average retail prices for raw shrimp are only up 8.2% from July 2021, which is a relative bargain.”

And don’t forget to toast to our current blessings and future good news. Wells recommends that we “wine, don’t whine,” recognizing a 5.8% increase in average wine prices this year which feels modest compared with other food/beverage inflation stats. “The spectrum of varieties, brands, and innovation packaging underscores the opportunity to pair affordable wine with summer meals, and to have some fun discovering new products,” Wells recommends.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Beyond the fun and eating, it’s a perfect time to reflect on our citizenship and health citizenship. That embodies both rights and responsibilities: health care as a right for all people, and rights to our personal data (beyond “medical” including all facets of personal information); and, responsibilities, to build trust and connections with our fellow health citizens and institutions, and love one another in community toward public health and well-being.

On this July 4th, we wish all, in the U.S. and in every nation, abundant health across all dimensions! 

 

20 Helpful Overall health Hacks That Function in 2022 – You Have to Get Balanced

20 Helpful Overall health Hacks That Function in 2022 – You Have to Get Balanced

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One particular of the important requirements for a fantastic lifetime is very good health. Remaining wholesome is not always quick we stay occupied lives in a rapidly-paced environment. It is demanding to accomplish improved well being, manage optimum conditioning and get rid of weight. But there are awesome well being hacks that can support you live a nutritious lifetime currently.

These health and fitness hacks that work are easy factors you can integrate into your day-to-day lifetime and continue to be balanced.

And you can use these health and fitness hacks for bodyweight decline, managing conditions, taking in healthy, and retaining health and fitness. 

Examine on locate out the 20 health and fitness hacks that perform in 2022, and that absolutely everyone ought to know.

Let’s get started!

20 Health Hacks That Operate in 2022

1. Searching for an simple way to work out on a fast paced routine? Climb the stairs in its place of employing the elevator, so your human body receives to have interaction in actual physical exercise or training.

2. Drink a cup of lemon h2o each early morning. It is a very powerful way to rid your entire body of toxic compounds. It also alkalizes your overall body and boosts digestive function for the working day.

3. Take extend breaks twice every hour will operating. It allows your overall body triumph over fatigue and enhances your mood. Make extend your quadratus lumborum muscle (muscle mass at the back again, in the vicinity of the sides) to avoid again pain.

4. Craving foodstuff generally? Chew gum. Cheating gum is the resolution if you generally have pointless foodstuff cravings because you are bored. It gets your thoughts off on the lookout for foods and retains your mouth busy.

5. Have you experienced time to tumble asleep? Blink your eyes for a moment although lying on your bed. It will make your eyes worn out, and you will tumble asleep. You can also study about the other healthier techniques to slide asleep.

6. Feeling Unhappy? Try to eat banana. Banana has been scientifically verified to be a purely natural mood booster. Eating bananas will make you delighted, as prolonged you really do not have a significant trouble.

7. Drink two or a few eyeglasses of h2o right before consuming in purchase to eat less and get rid of excess weight fast.

8. Owning a sore throat? Check out marshmallows. Taking in sap from marshmallow plants has been applied for hundreds of years to handle coughs, colds, and sore throats.

9. Do you want to burn energy quicker? Climbing stairs is a terrific way to burn up energy incredibly quick. In simple fact, you can burn in excess of 300 energy in thirty minutes.

10. Eating oranges just before doing the job out will preserve you hydrated adequately. Moreover, it will avert your muscle tissue from getting sore.

11. The 20/20/20 rule. Suppose you stare at a laptop or computer or smartphone for long intervals. Try the 20/20/20 rule. It is a extremely popular health and fitness hack that cuts down eye discomfort, strain, and redness. To do this, acquire 20 seconds to search at a little something 20 ft away just about every 20 minutes.

12. Insert vegetables to each meal to take in healthily. Boil a little portion of wholesome veggies and include it as a facet foods to maintain your human body nutritious. You can come across out some of the healthiest vegetables to consume every day.

13. Smell an orange to raise your mental health and fitness. A number of scientific tests have identified that the scent of oranges can lower pressure and enrich your temper.

14. Use turmeric to get rid of undesirable system hair. Grind a tiny amount of money of pawpaw and blend with raw ground turmeric root. Mix the paste and rub it on the furry sections of your skin for 20 minutes day by day.

15. Just take a walk in the early morning when heading to function. It presents you vitamin D. Acquiring ample vitamin D signifies you have significantly less chance for diabetic issues, cardiovascular ailments, and prostate most cancers.

16. Workout with a health spouse. A health associate presents you with wholesome opposition, makes you love your exercise routine, and improves your workout security.

17. Transform the water cold at the end of the shower to stop acne. Cold drinking water seals your pores and helps prevent micro organism from entering them.

18. Feeling nauseated? Ginger is the answer. It has been made use of for hundreds of several years for treating tummy challenges, diarrhea, and nausea. It is a very powerful hack in dealing with nausea because of to pregnancy.

19. Are your youngsters obtaining respiratory concerns? Peppermint oil can help. Combine a several drops of peppermint oil with eucalyptus oil and rub on to the upper body, neck, and again. Alternatively, you can incorporate the peppermint oil to hot drinking water and inhale the vapor.

20. Want to get a lot more out from your cardio? Use 12-3-30 work out in treadmills. This is a single of the most well known well being hacks that work in 2022. 

It simply usually means location a treadmill to a 12% incline and walking at 3 miles for every hour for 30 minutes. Undertaking this will intensify your treadmill program and generate up your heart amount, burning much more energy.

 

Conclusion

Following these straightforward well being hacks that perform can increase your well being, and high-quality of daily life effortlessly. Assure that you bear in mind them and use them when necessary.

The 101 on calorie deficit – how essential is it for fat reduction? – Healthista

The 101 on calorie deficit – how essential is it for fat reduction? – Healthista

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Is losing bodyweight simpler when you are clued up on calories? Is a calorie deficit the only respond to to long-expression weight loss? Lucy Gornall quizzes the industry experts

If you are hoping to get rid of any unwelcome pounds, then it is a fantastic plan to get to grips with calorie burning.

Just after all, fat loss in its most primary terms, entails the entire body burning additional energy than it can take in. This is termed ‘calorie deficit’.

On the other hand, there is a minimal more to the bodyweight decline conundrum. But 1st, what IS a calorie? It’s a word which is thrown all over regularly but do you in fact know what constitutes a calorie and its relationship to metabolic rate?

Rob Hobson, Sporting activities Nutritionist at Healthspan Elite, points out that put basically, a calorie is a device of electricity.

‘The energy in foodstuff is measured in energy which can help folks to fully grasp what they have to have to eat to meet their own personalized energy demands,’ describes Hobson.

A quicker metabolic level implies a greater calorie melt away

Typically, we want a certain quantity of energy each day to functionality the UK’s NHS endorses 2500 energy a working day for men and 2000 energy a day for gals.

Hobson adds that rate of metabolism is defined as the chemical processes that occur within the entire body to retain daily life. These processes help in the conversion of food items into power.

‘A whole lot of energy is utilized up when at rest as the body is occupied executing the tasks that aid to preserve you alive which involves respiration, growth and repair service. This is identified as your basal metabolic charge and this can differ amongst men and women,’ describes Hobson.

A person’s basal metabolic level is basically the rate of calorie burn when doing absolutely nothing. A faster metabolic price indicates a bigger calorie burn up, whilst a slower metabolic level implies much less energy are burnt.

Study Much more: Healthista Loves: The Organic and natural Pharmacy

101 ON CALORIE BURNING woman stepping on scales

Fundamental factors influencing your rate of metabolism, and calorie burn off

Not everybody burns energy at the exact level this is where metabolism comes in. Even so, there are a selection of other motives why another person might melt away extra calories without the need of even realising they are executing so.

‘Body dimensions is just one these types of issue, for case in point anyone larger will burn off far more strength,’ Hobson clarifies.

‘Someone who is chubby or obese will obviously burn off much more electricity when transferring for the really simple fact that it requires additional effort and hard work to carry the fat about.

‘Having additional muscle to unwanted fat implies you will burn off additional vitality and this is not just at relaxation but when you are going also. This is often the reason gentlemen burn much more strength than gals of a very similar age and weight because they have a bigger muscle mass,’ provides Hobson.

Someone who is over weight or obese will naturally burn much more energy

Lastly, age far too is a contributing variable.

‘Muscle mass decreases with age and at an even greater level in ladies throughout menopause. This fall in muscle mass signifies fewer energy burnt when you are relocating,’ suggests Hobson.

This is why keeping a nutritious muscle mass during daily life by staying energetic and like resistance-based mostly training, is essential to sustain the healthful fat burning capacity we all wish for.

Go through Additional: 5 healthy pasta recipes great for the weekend

chilli peppers

Fancy dashing up your metabolism?

Rob points out that the only definitely productive way to do this is by exercising and also shifting your entire body composition by rising muscle mass mass and shedding fat.

As for foodstuff that could increase metabolism, it’s truly only a shorter-lived point.

‘There are some foods which are generally touted as assisting you to burn additional calories and these include things like chillies and inexperienced tea,’ says Hobson.

‘While they could momentarily boost your fat burning capacity as a end result of heat, if we’re chatting about chillies, the resultant calorie decline is not seriously that sizeable,’ reveals Hobson.

Burning calories in your snooze?

The attractiveness of calorie burning is that it is going on all the time. Sure, even when you snooze!

‘The human body doesn’t just shut down even though sleeping. Electrical power is nonetheless essential for a lot of various functions in the human body and this genuinely goes back to the basal metabolic level (BMR),’ suggests Hobson.

A woman’s menstrual cycle could also influence the basal metabolic amount

If your BMR is substantial, then you will burn up additional vitality for the duration of snooze.

A woman’s menstrual cycle could also affect the basal metabolic price even so Rob suggests that this looks to rely on the particular person.

‘Other study implies that BMR could increase throughout the luteal stage of the cycle (concerning ovulation and the future interval) but these dissimilarities in electricity are very small,’ Hobson adds.

Go through Far more: Can’t slumber? These 20 healthier foods could be the cure

woman asleep burning calories while you sleep calorie deficit 101

Calorie burn up throughout the working day

Of program, your BMR isn’t the only calorie burn you’ll working experience day to day. Motion, irrespective of whether that be a planned workout session or normal movement during the working day such as getting up and strolling all-around, cleaning, cooking and going for walks up stairs, is a great  way of burning energy.

A 30-moment walk can burn up to 189 energy per 30 minutes, while a 30 moment run could burn off up to 336 energy.

Eventually nevertheless, if you’re hoping to shed fat, a just one-hour fitness center session with the relaxation of the day remaining sedentary, is not likely to be ample, except if of training course you’re getting in a lot less calories than you melt away.

your BMR is not the only calorie melt away you will experience working day to working day

It is vital to hold relocating all over the working day take a stroll on your lunch crack, opt for the stairs instead of the raise, and park a tiny further more away from your spot so you can walk a very little a lot more.

You may well have read of particular foods in fact producing a better calorie melt away simply just by the chewing and digestion process than the calories the food stuff truly includes. Celery is a person these food stuff.

The tale is that as celery contains so few energy (as it’s genuinely high in drinking water) the electricity used by the system to mechanically consume and digest it is better than what it contains. But Rob points out that this is overexaggerated and however there is no this kind of detail as a negative calorie foods.

What about health supplements?

There’s an array of drugs and potions on the industry stated to enable melt away calories, even so Rob suggests these are somewhat of a fantasy.

‘Caffeine will maximize your metabolic price for a whilst as your coronary heart price is elevated and hormones like adrenaline kick in. This supplement is typically utilised amongst athletes,’ reveals H0bson.

Try: Healthspan Elite Kick Begin Caffeine Gum, £9.99.

‘In each and every sport I have been involved in, caffeine has been utilized to help functionality, whether this is consciously or subconsciously,’ says Efficiency Nutritionist Nigel Mitchell.

Caffeine will improve your metabolic rate for a when as your coronary heart price is elevated

‘Conscious use would be when an athlete will tactically consume caffeine at certain moments this could be from foodstuff these types of as coffee or nutritional supplements in the form of supplements, chewing gum, and combined caffeine and carbohydrate electricity gels.

‘Subconscious use would be somebody like me possessing a couple of espressos ahead of heading for a bike ride’.

‘If we search at exploration about caffeine and workout, we can see it is most likely the most researched supplement’, states Hobson.

‘This complement performs as an ergogenic support enhancing performance by minimizing the perception of tiredness but I wouldn’t rely on it for bodyweight loss’.

Read More: Best diet program for menopause – an job interview with Dr Clare Bailey

101 ON CALORIE BURNING foods to eat more or less of calorie deficit

Eating Much more, taking in Considerably less

Chopping back on the amount of money you take in can be tricky, and usually can take some major willpower! But, you can try to eat a lot of foods with no the higher calorie depend that normally arrives with large foods.

‘The most basic way to do this is by taking in foodstuff with a high-water content material as they contain much less calories but additional bulk’, clarifies Hobson.

‘Salad greens are a great case in point as you can pile them higher on the plate to bulk out your food but consume couple calories in the course of action. The exact is correct for foods like soups, stews, broths and casseroles. These consist of tons of drinking water so as lengthy as they are broth inventory or tomato-centered then they are a good way to consume a lot more for significantly less if you like’.

The argument from calories

Whilst energy in vs calories out is the typical rule equation for running pounds, quite a few arguments have been set ahead as to why calorie counting may possibly not be all it’s cracked up to be.

Analysis suggests the style of microbes in your gut influences the variety of calories your overall body really utilises from specific meals.

‘It has even been located that folks who are obviously slender have various microorganisms residing in their gut in comparison to overweight people,’ Hobson reveals.

He adds that another argument is that your entire body ‘has a ‘set point’ that governs your weight’.

Biologically, consuming significantly less energy than you melt away each day puts you into a deficit that incurs excess weight reduction

‘Everything in the system is controlled by the hypothalamus in the brain, which operates to maintain equilibrium. It is argued that even if you are dieting and training AKA, decreasing your calorie ingestion, there may possibly be a plateau in body weight loss as the body fights to maintain at the established point’.

This could also be a cause why some men and women wrestle to preserve the excess weight off.

Biologically, having considerably less energy than you burn up day by day puts you into a deficit that incurs weight reduction. Investigation has advised that this principle may well not be that straight forward and that how individuals utilise calories may possibly differ involving men and women.

On the other hand, energy still offer you a easy and very accessible way for persons to watch their over-all vitality ingestion.

The reality continue to remains that to lose pounds individuals will need to make changes to their food plan which inevitably implies ingesting considerably less food though increasing their each day activity to assist increase their calorie burn.

How do different types of COVID-19 vaccines work?

How do different types of COVID-19 vaccines work?

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Different types of COVID-19 vaccines: How they work

Curious about how mRNA vaccines and other types of COVID-19 vaccines can help you develop immunity to the COVID-19 virus? Understand how different technologies work with the immune system to provide protection.

By Mayo Clinic Staff

A coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine can prevent you from getting COVID-19 or from becoming seriously ill or dying due to COVID-19. But how do the different types of COVID-19 vaccines work?

Each COVID-19 vaccine causes the immune system to create antibodies to fight COVID-19. COVID-19 vaccines use a harmless version of a spikelike structure on the surface of the COVID-19 virus called an S protein.

The main types of COVID-19 vaccines currently available in the U.S. or being studied include:

  • Messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccine. This type of vaccine uses genetically engineered mRNA to give your cells instructions for how to make the S protein found on the surface of the COVID-19 virus. After vaccination, your muscle cells begin making the S protein pieces and displaying them on cell surfaces. This causes your body to create antibodies. If you later become infected with the COVID-19 virus, these antibodies will fight the virus.

    After delivering instructions, the mRNA is immediately broken down. It never enters the nucleus of your cells, where your DNA is kept. Both the Pfizer-BioNTech and the Moderna COVID-19 vaccines use mRNA.

  • Vector vaccine. In this type of vaccine, genetic material from the COVID-19 virus is placed in a modified version of a different virus (viral vector). When the viral vector gets into your cells, it delivers genetic material from the COVID-19 virus that gives your cells instructions to make copies of the S protein. Once your cells display the S proteins on their surfaces, your immune system responds by creating antibodies and defensive white blood cells. If you later become infected with the COVID-19 virus, the antibodies will fight the virus.

    Viral vector vaccines can’t cause you to become infected with the COVID-19 virus or the viral vector virus. Also, the genetic material that’s delivered doesn’t become part of your DNA. The Janssen/Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine is a vector vaccine. AstraZeneca and the University of Oxford also have a vector COVID-19 vaccine.

  • Protein subunit vaccine. Subunit vaccines include only the parts of a virus that best stimulate your immune system. This type of COVID-19 vaccine contains harmless S proteins. Once your immune system recognizes the S proteins, it creates antibodies and defensive white blood cells. If you later become infected with the COVID-19 virus, the antibodies will fight the virus.

    Novavax is working on a protein subunit COVID-19 vaccine.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, now called Comirnaty, to prevent COVID-19 in people age 16 and older. The vaccine is under an emergency use authorization for children age 6 months through age 15. The FDA has also approved the Moderna vaccine, now called Spikevax, to prevent COVID-19 in people age 18 and older. The FDA has given emergency use authorization to Moderna COVID-19 vaccines for age 6 months to age 17. The FDA has also given emergency use authorization to the Janssen/Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine for certain people age 18 and older.

 

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COVID-19: Who’s at higher risk of serious symptoms?

COVID-19: Who’s at higher risk of serious symptoms?

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COVID-19: Who’s at higher risk of serious symptoms?

Other health conditions, such as heart or lung disease, can increase your risk of developing dangerous symptoms if you get coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

By Mayo Clinic Staff

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms can vary widely. Some people have no symptoms at all. But others become so sick that they need to stay in the hospital and may eventually need a machine to breathe.

The risk of developing dangerous symptoms of COVID-19 may be increased in people who are older. The risk may also be increased in people of any age who have other serious health problems — such as heart or lung conditions, weakened immune systems, obesity, or diabetes. This is similar to what is seen with other respiratory illnesses, such as the flu (influenza).

Each of these factors can increase the risk of severe COVID-19 symptoms. But people who have several of these other health problems are at even higher risk.

Older age

People of any age can catch COVID-19. But it most commonly affects middle-aged and older adults. The risk of developing dangerous symptoms increases with age, with those who are age 85 and older are at the highest risk of serious symptoms. In the U.S., about 81% of deaths from the disease have been in people age 65 and older. Risks are even higher for older people when they have other health conditions.

Take all your medications as prescribed. Consider developing a care plan that includes information about your medical conditions, medications, providers’ names and emergency contacts.

Nursing home residents are at high risk because they often have multiple health problems, combined with advanced age. And germs can spread very easily between people who live near each other. If you live in a nursing home, follow the guidelines to prevent infection. Ask about protection measures for residents and visitor restrictions. Let staff know if you feel ill.

Older people are also more likely to have Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s can make it more difficult for them to remember the precautions recommended to prevent infection.

Lung problems, including asthma

COVID-19 targets the lungs. So, you’re more likely to develop severe symptoms if you already have various chronic lung problems, including:

  • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
  • Lung cancer
  • Cystic fibrosis
  • Pulmonary fibrosis
  • Moderate to severe asthma
  • Pulmonary hypertension
  • Pulmonary embolism

Some medications for these conditions can weaken your immune system. However, it’s important to stay on your maintenance medications to keep symptoms as controlled as possible. You may want to talk to your health care provider about getting an emergency supply of prescription medications, such as asthma inhalers.

It may also help to avoid the things that make your asthma worse. These asthma triggers can vary from person to person. Examples include pollen, dust mites, tobacco smoke and cold air. Strong emotions and stress can trigger asthma attacks in some people. Others are bothered by strong odors, so make sure the disinfectant you’re using isn’t an asthma trigger for you.

Besides being an asthma trigger, smoking or vaping can harm your lungs and inhibit your immune system, which increases the risk of serious complications with COVID-19.

Heart disease

Many types of heart disease can make you more likely to develop severe COVID-19 symptoms. These include:

  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Congenital heart disease
  • Heart failure
  • Coronary artery disease

Continue to take your medications exactly as prescribed. If you have high blood pressure, your risk may be higher if you don’t control your blood pressure and take your medications as directed.

Brain and nervous system conditions

Some conditions that affect the brain or nervous system can increase your risk of developing severe COVID-19 symptoms.

These include:

Diabetes and obesity

Type 1 or type 2 diabetes can increase your risk of serious COVID-19 symptoms. Having a higher body mass index that’s considered overweight, obese or severely obese also increases this risk.

Diabetes and obesity both reduce how well a person’s immune system works. Diabetes increases the risk of infections in general. This risk can be reduced by keeping blood sugar levels controlled and continuing your diabetes medications and insulin. If you are overweight or obese, aim to lose weight by eating a healthy diet and getting regular physical activity.

Cancer and certain blood disorders

People who currently have cancer are at higher risk of developing more severe illness from COVID-19. This risk can vary, depending on the type of cancer and the kind of treatment you’re receiving.

Sickle cell anemia is another condition that increases the risk of severe COVID-19 symptoms. This inherited disorder causes your red blood cells to become hard, sticky and shaped like the letter “C.” These deformed red blood cells die early, so oxygen can’t be transported around your body as well. It also causes painful blockages in small blood vessels.

Another inherited blood disorder, called thalassemia, might also make you more likely to have serious COVID-19 symptoms. In thalassemia, the body doesn’t produce enough hemoglobin and this affects how well the red blood cells can carry oxygen.

Weakened immune system

A healthy immune system fights the germs that cause disease. But many conditions and treatments can weaken your immune system, including:

  • Organ transplants
  • Cancer treatments
  • Bone marrow transplant
  • HIV/AIDS
  • Long-term use of prednisone or similar drugs that weaken your immune system

If you have a weakened immune system, you may need to take extra precautions to avoid the virus that causes COVID-19. Routine doctor appointments may be delayed or happen via phone or video conference. You may want to have your medications mailed to you, so you don’t have to go to the pharmacy.

Chronic kidney or liver disease

Chronic kidney or liver disease can weaken your immune system, which may increase your risk of being seriously ill with COVID-19. Also, having serious COVID-19 symptoms and taking medications to treat the disease may have negative effects on the liver.

If you’re on dialysis for chronic kidney disease, go to every dialysis appointment. Let your doctor know if you feel ill.

Mental health conditions

People with mental health conditions such as depression and schizophrenia spectrum disorders may be more likely to develop serious COVID-19 symptoms.

Down syndrome

People with Down syndrome are more likely to develop lung infections in general, so they are particularly vulnerable to COVID-19. They are also at higher risk of already having many of the health problems that have been linked to developing severe COVID-19 symptoms — including heart disease, sleep apnea, obesity and diabetes.

Many adults with Down syndrome live in nursing homes, where it can be harder to avoid exposure to germs from other residents and staff. Down syndrome also often affects intellectual abilities, so it may be more difficult for this population to follow prevention measures.

Protect yourself; prevent unnecessary risk

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has given emergency use authorization to some COVID-19 vaccines in the U.S. The FDA has also approved the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, now called Comirnaty, to prevent COVID-19 in people age 16 and older. The FDA has given emergency use authorization to Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines for age 6 months through age 15. The FDA has approved the Moderna vaccine, now called Spikevax, to prevent COVID-19 in people age 18 and older. The FDA has given emergency use authorization to Moderna COVID-19 vaccine for children ages 6 months through age 17. The FDA has given emergency use authorization to the Janssen/Johnson & Johnson vaccine to certain people age 18 and older.

A vaccine can prevent you from getting the COVID-19 virus or prevent you from becoming seriously ill if you get the COVID-19 virus. After you are vaccinated, you can more safely return to many activities that you might not have been able to do because of the pandemic. However, if you are in an area with a high number of people with COVID-19 in the hospital and new COVID-19 cases, the CDC recommends wearing a mask indoors in public, whether or not you’re vaccinated. The CDC recommends wearing the most protective mask possible that you’ll wear regularly, fits well and is comfortable.

If you have a weakened immune system or have a higher risk of serious illness, wear a mask that provides you with the most protection possible when you’re in an area with a high number of people with COVID-19 in the hospital and new COVID-19 cases. Check with your healthcare provider to see if you should wear a mask when you’re in an area with a lower number of new COVID-19 cases and people with COVID-19 in the hospital.

An additional dose of a COVID-19 vaccine is recommended for people who are vaccinated and might not have had a strong enough immune response.

In contrast, a booster dose is recommended for people who are vaccinated and whose immune response weakened over time. This includes many people with health conditions that cause them to have a higher risk of serious illness.

People who have a moderately or severely weakened immune system should get an additional primary shot and a booster shot.

There are many steps you can take to reduce your risk of infection from the COVID-19 virus and reduce the risk of spreading it to others. The World Health Organization (WHO) and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend following these precautions for avoiding COVID-19:

  • Get vaccinated. COVID-19 vaccines reduce the risk of getting and spreading COVID-19.
  • Avoid close contact (within 6 feet, or about 2 meters) with others. Avoid anyone who is sick.
  • Keep distance between yourself and others if COVID-19 when you’re in indoor public spaces if you’re not fully vaccinated. This is especially important if you have a higher risk of serious illness.
  • Wash your hands often with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, or use an alcohol-based hand sanitizer that contains at least 60% alcohol.
  • Wear a face mask in indoor public spaces if you’re in an area with a high number of people with COVID-19 in the hospital and new COVID-19 cases, whether or not you’re vaccinated.
  • Cover your mouth and nose with your elbow or a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw away the used tissue. Wash your hands right away.
  • Avoid touching your eyes, nose and mouth.
  • Avoid sharing dishes, glasses, towels, bedding and other household items if you’re sick.
  • Clean and disinfect high-touch surfaces, such as doorknobs, light switches, electronics and counters, regularly.
  • Stay home from work, school and public areas if you’re sick, unless you’re going to get medical care. Avoid taking public transportation, taxis and ride-sharing if you’re sick.

In addition to these everyday precautions, if you are at higher risk of infection or of developing serious COVID-19 symptoms, you might also want to:

  • Make sure you have at least a 30-day supply of your regular prescription and over-the-counter medications.
  • Check to see if your vaccinations are up to date, particularly for the flu and pneumonia. These vaccines won’t prevent COVID-19. But becoming ill with the flu or pneumonia may worsen your outcome if you also catch COVID-19.
  • Plan an alternate way of communicating with your health care provider in case you need to stay at home for a period of time. Some health care providers are doing appointments via phone or video conference.
  • Arrange for delivery or curbside orders of restaurant meals, groceries or medications so you can avoid crowds.
  • Call your health care provider if you have questions about your medical conditions and COVID-19 or if you’re ill. If you need emergency care, call your local emergency number or go to your local emergency department.
  • Call your health care provider if you have questions about non-critical medical appointments. You’ll be advised whether a virtual visit, in-person visit, delaying the appointment or other options are appropriate.

 

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